SUMMARY OF THE MARTYRS IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
The way and entrance to the martyrs of this century is through the valleys of Albi and throughout France, England, and other countries, where the pious witnesses of Jesus laid down their lives for the evangelical truth.
From the year 1209 throughout this century, crusades are preached in the name of the pope; which were the cause of the destruction of thousands of Albigenses, who lived quietly and peaceably under certain papistic authorities; for certain reasons, however, we have not finished this account.
Remarks with eight reasons unanimously indicating the nonresistant principles of the true Albigenses; nevertheless, for important reasons, we have placed the account of their martyrdom for the
* The following words are obscure in the author; hence we experienced difficulty in translating them.-Van. Braght.
most part in a marginal note, for the years 1210 and 1211.
One hundred and eighty persons called Albigenses, burnt without the castle Minerve, A. D. 1210.
Sixty of those people end their lives by fire, for their faith, at Casser, about A. D. 1211.
About one hundred persons, who confessed the same doctrine, burnt alive in a tower at Cassas, about the close of A. D. 1211.
Fifty of their fellow believers likewise lose their lives by fire, at Chastelnau d'Ari, about the close of A. D. 1211.
Over four hundred persons, who professed the same profession, though called Induti, at Lavaur, or Vaurum, rather suffer themselves to be burnt to death by the terrible flames than accept the Roman faith.
ACCOUNT PROPER OF THE HOLY MARTYRS
Great persecutions of the believers, A. D. 1206. A man, at London, in England, burnt alive for the faith of the Waldenses, A. D. 1210; and twenty-four persons at Paris, in France, likewise put to death by fire, for the same religion.
In the year 1212, about one hundred persons called Waldenses, are put to death by fire at Strasburg; thirty-nine at Bingen, and eighteen at Mentz.
Account of a cruel inquisition, A. D. 1214, over the doctrine of the Waldenses; Conrad of Marpurg, the chief inquisitor, and his mode of examination with red-hot iron, as well as with hot and cold water; also, the oath which the inquisitors in the bishopric of Utrecht were wont to put to those who were then called heretics, abot A. D. 1215.
About eighty persons called Waldenses, burnt for the faith, at Strasburg; also some Christians at Toulouse, about A. D. 1215.
Gerard de la Motte, a deacon of the Christians called Albi-Waldenses, with some of his fellowbelievers, sacrificed by fire, at Borriens, A. D. 1227.
Several papal statutes and ordinances against the Waldenses, related for the year 1229.
Severe persecution, through the Inquisition, in Germany, where very many Waldenses are burnt for the faith, A. D. 1230.
Three decrees of Emperor Frederick II are successively described, for the year 1230; another severe persecution of the Anabaptistic Waldenses, in Germany, A. D. 1231.
Nineteen persons of the same profession, burnt in the bishopric of Toulouse, A. D. 1232; also, two hundred and twenty-four in a place near Toulouse, A. D. 1243; a rigorous inquisition in the aforesaid bishopric, A. D. 1251, which was carried also into the following year.
Decree of Pope Urban III against the Waldenses and Albigenses in Lombardy and about Genoa, A. D. 1262; great persecutions, about A. D. 1280, 1283, 1284.
Gerard Sagarellus burnt at Parma, A. D. 1285; Herman, Andrew, and Guillemette [Wilhelmina], exhumed, A. D. 1299. Conclusion.]
The valleys of Albi, the region around Toulouse, yea, all France, England, and other kingdoms, furnish us, during this century, many martyrs, who, though, they, with reference to the severity of their tortures, according to the flesh, were pitiable and most miserable, suffered nevertheless with good cheer, yea, with joy, in consideration of their sure hope and unshaken confidence in the Lord, as being their shield and exceeding great reward.*
As regards the persecutions that occurred in this century, against the Waldenses and Albigenses, they by far surpass all other persecutions of which we read in the preceding centuries; for it seemed now as if the very furies of hell, so to speak, had broken loose, to destroy all believers, yea, almost the whole earth.
In the years 1209-12, 1225, 1234, yea, throughout the entire thirteenth century, crusades, or socalled holy, voluntary preparations of war were preached, by order of the pope, for the extermination of the Waldenses and Albigenses, all over the world, but more particularly in the kingdom of France.
These crusades consisted in great armies of Roman Catholics, who voluntarily enlisted in this socalled holy warfare; each distinguished by a white cross on his breast, or one of white cloth sewed on his garment; on account of which crosses these armies were called Crusades.
But that they might acquit themselves the more courageously and intrepidly, in exterminating the Albigenses and Waldenses, yea, that they might suffer none of them to remain alive, but kill them by fire, sword, gallows, and other means, the pope most solemnly promised to all who by so doing should meet death, or fall by the weapons of the princes seeking to protect the Albigenses and Waldenses, full remission of all their past sins, yea, that they should straightway go to heaven.
This had the effect, that countless multitudes flocked together, as it were, to the honor of God, and for the extirpation of the so-called heresies, in order to obtain forgiveness of sins, and thus dying find salvation; and having, under certain chieftains, been formed into armies they marched forth and engaged alone in murdering, burning, desolating and tyrannizing among the Waldenses and Albigenses, sparing not even the infant in the cradle. It is impossible to relate how great a multitude of these innocent people perished, and under what severe torments, simply on account of their true faith.
* Gen. 15:1.
REMARKS IN REGARD TO THE DISTINCTION OF THE PEOPLE CALLED ALBIGENSES OR WALDENSES
I deem it necessary here, to insert a caution, which I desire that it be borne in mind wherever the Albigenses and Waldenses (who are introduced as witnesses of our faith) are spoken of, namely, that we here speak only of such people as, besides the confession of their and our most holy faith respecting the points necessary to salvation, were opposed to war, and willingly and patiently, as defenseless sheep of Christ appointed for the slaughter, entered the path of death through manifold torments inflicted upon them by the enemies of the faith, to the glory of God, the edification of their neighbor, and the salvation of their own souls.
It is true, that in ancient histories mention is made of people who, though improperly, were called Waldenses or Albigenses, who resisted, yea slew their enemies; but of such we do not speak here, indeed, all of whom there is reason so to think, we would positively pass by.*
It must also be observed here, that the princes who had taken the defenseless Albigenses and Waldenses under their protection, and even their soldiers, were sometimes (through sheer ignorance) called Albigenses or Waldenses, simply because they protected them. However, of these we do not here speak, but only of those who, according to their confession, lived peaceably and meekly under their protection.
That many of them dwelt, as defenseless sheep, under the government of such princes, and that on this account war was sometimes waged by their enemies against these princes, so that one had to suffer with the other, is evident from the accounts of the ancients; however, we have, to the utmost of our ability, distinguished them; so that as far as we know, not one of those whom we have mentioned as martyrs, had any part or lot with revenge, much less with war.
In addition to this, I will briefly adduce from ancient writers, for the benefit of the truth-seeking reader, several arguments, showing that the Waldenses and Albigenses dwelt defenselessly and in all quiet under the protection of their magistracies; and that in consequence of this, said magistrates were also called Waldenses and Albigenses, and war waged against them; who, when they resisted, were the cause that it was said that the Albigenses or Waldenses had resisted, yea, actually fought.
First Argument.-Abraham Mellinus, from Innocent III, epist. 84, states: That the pope, through letters, as well as legates, gave orders, throughout France, to the ecclesiastics as well as the seculars, to exterminate the Albigenses; however, Raymond, count of Toulouse had already taken upon him to defend the Albigenses. For this reason Pope Innocent
* In those times there was a sect sometimes, though improperly, called Albigenses. Their proper name, however, was"Ruptuarii' or"Routiers" • that is, desolators or rioters, because they made resistance. See 2d book of he Persecutions, fol. 460, col. 4. But of such we have purposely avoided to speak, as they do not belong here.
wrote to the Archbishop of Narbonne, and to other bishops, abbots, and prelates, and among these especially to Radulph, canon of Narbonne, and also to the abbots of the great valley, and of Cisteaux, that they should speak to the count and persuade him to persecute the heretics (that is, the Albigenses); but, if he should reject their counsel, that they should excommunicate him; both of which took place. Second book, fol. 449, Col. 1.
Second Argument.-Chassanion states: That shortly after the departure of the count of Toulouse and the King of Aragon, the abbot of Cisteaux, first legate of the pope, sent the bishop of Toulouse in France, to preach the crusade against Count Raymond, and to instigate the whole world against him and his country, saying that he rebelled against the (Roman Catholic) church, and protected all the heretics (namely, the Albigenses) that were within his territory. Chassan. Hist., lib. 3, cap. 10.
Third Argument.-The legate of the pope summoned Raymond, count of Toulouse, to Arles, indicating that his case (namely, his protecting the Albigenses) would be considered there. When he came, several articles by which he was to be governed were laid before him; one of which was: That he should expel from his territories all the heretics (namely, the Waldenses, who lived quietly ,and peaceably under him), together with their adherents, friends, and kindred. Also: That he should deliver up into the hands of the legate, and Count Montfort, all those whom they should name to him (namely, those who professed the same belief), that they might do with them according to their pleasure; and this within one year. Chassan., Hist. Alb., lib. 3, cap. 9, 10. A. Mell., fol. 455, Col. 1.
Fourth Argument.-Robert of Auxerre concludes his Year-book with the papal excommunication against Raymond, count of Toulouse, whose territory was given as a prey to all who wished
because he was found (says the writer) to extend favor and assistance to the heretics (the Albigenses and Waldenses), ,and was, therefore, declared a renegade of the faith and an open enemy of the (Roman) church. Chron. Altiss., A. D. 1211, Deceased A. D. 1212.
Who does not see that this Count was excommunicated simply bcause he permitted these socailed heretics, termed Albigenses and Waldenses, to live under him? on account of which his whole territory was given for a prey.
Fifth Argument.-In the year 1212 the city of Penne, or Pene, in the territory of Aix la Chapelle, was besieged by the count of Montfort; but before the enemy arrived, the governor burnt the suburb, and retreated with his people into the citadel. Finally the city was taken, and seventy soldiers who were in it ( the writer says) were hanged; but all the rest (namely, the defenseless) that maintained the error of the Albigenses, were burnt. Thuan. Hist., lib. 6, A. D. 1550. Forte ex hincentio Bello hacensi and Petro Sarn.
From this also it certainly is more than evident that the Albigenses lived quietly under their magistrates, and offered no resistance to the enemies; hence they were not hanged, like the conquered soldiers, but burnt as heretics.
Sixth Argument.-"Thus the Count of Montfort," writes Paul Emilius,"scoured the whole country, and brought all the cities and castles, especially in Agenois and Rouergue, under his power. Not because they all held an ungodly doctrine (that is, were Albigenses), but in order that they might not be able to protect or assist the ungodly," that is, the heretics, as they called them. Hist. Gal., lib. 6, in Phill., Aug. 2.
Here it is also evident beyond contradiction, that the Albigenses who lived under those magistrates, did not only carry no arms, but also held a belief entirely different from that of their authorities; for, otherwise they would have called both by the same name, that is, ungodly, but as it is, only the Albigenses are called ungodly, while of the magistrates it is stated, that they did not hold this doctrine; although sometimes the magistrates and the subjects were called by the same name, as has been said.
Seventh Argument.-This is still more confirmed by the words with which the Dominican friars in those times were accustomed to conclude their sermons, saying, "Behold, here ye can perceive, most beloved, how great the wickedness of the heretics (the Albigenses) is, yea, what is still more, they have accepted the protection of the secular lords." hinbert. Burgund. Sean.., part 2, Serm. 64.
From this, and similar passages which we might adduce, it is sufficiently evident that not the Albigenses or Waldenses, but the magistrates under whom they lived, had recourse to arms and carried on war; hence, they do wrong, who confound the Albigenses with their magistrates, and lay, whether through ignorance or on purpose, what their magistrates did, to the charge of the Albigenses. Their own confession has already been given; in which they confess: That they follow the example of Christ, who exercised no temporal jurisdiction or dominion.
Eighth Argument.-But, for still further proof of said matter, we will add the following, contained in the Introduction to the Martyrs' Mirror, edition 1631, p. 50, col. 1, "A. D., . . . there existed in Toulouse in France, the Albigenses, so called because they arose principally in the province of Albi; otherwise they were of the same doctrine and belief as the former (the Waldenses); hence it is presumable, that they were one people notwithstanding that they are called by different names.", "Baronius writes that their belief, among other things, was: That infant baptism was not necessary to salvation; that an unworthy, sinful priest could not administer the sacrament; that no one might become a bishop, who was not blameless; that no churches ought to be erected to the honor of God or the saints; that confession (of sins) could be made to any one; that it was not lawful to swear any oath, etc.; all of which things they said could be found in the New Testament, to which alone they held." From Baron., A. D. 1176, num. 1, 2, 3.
Continuing, we find, in the afore-mentioned Introduction (sane page, col. 2), respecting their views against war, and in refutation of those who impute this to them, the following words, "For this reason we must also consider, that when we read here of the wars waged against them, and the resistance which they offered, this . . . is to be understood of the princes and magistrates who took them under their protection; as the King of Aragon, the count of Toulouse, the count of Foix, and others; further, of those who were employed under the authority of the afore-mentioned persons; but it is. neither probable nor reasonable, that such people should be counted among them, who, according to Baronius, regulated their conduct only by the New Testament, which they observed so strictly, that they would not even swear an oath, which is much less than to engage in war."
This is confirmed by what Baronius says, namely, that war was waged by the pope and his adherents, against the aforesaid princes, for the reason that the latter would not persecute the Albigenses, and expel them from their territory;'but when this was done, after the said princes had been brought into subjection, the Albigenses, he writes, soon became extinct. Bar., A. D. 1210, num. 3, and 1228, nuns,. 3.
This could not have been the case if so numerous a people had opposed their persecutors with force of arms. Introduction, page 51, col. 1.
DEMONSTRATION OF A PLAIN DISTINCTION BE TWEEN THE ALBIGENSES AND THEIR MAGIS TRATES AND FELLOW CITIZENS
The last-mentioned writer, proceeding to the violence and vexation suffered by the Albigenses from the papists-ecclesiastics as well as seculars, makes mention of Raymond, count of Toulouse, and of the count of Turenne, saying: That they went to Peter, the cardinal and legate of the pope, in order that they should kill or slay the heretics (the Albigenses), if the latter should not be converted to the Roman church through the cardinals' preaching. Having arrived at Toulouse, they made the citizens swear an oath that they would name all the Albigenses they knew. Many of them were now betrayed, and among these, also Peter Moranus, one of their principal men. When he was examined, he freely confessed his faith; and was instantly condemned as a heretic, and all his property confiscated. Introduction, p. 51, col. 1, 2, from Baron., A. D. 1178, num. 2.
NOTE.-From the afore-mentioned eight arguments, but especially from this last demonstration, it appears incontrovertibly, that a great distinction
must be made, between the Albigenses and their magistrates, as well as the citizens among whom they lived in the cities; so that whenever resistance, war or conflict are spoken of, in which the inhabitants of this or that city or place engaged, it is to be understood throughout of the magistrates and their soldiers, who guarded said cities or places, as also, of the common citizens; but not of the true Albigenses, since these, in accordance with their faith, as has already been sufficiently stated, exercised no revenge or resistance against any one, but lived peaceably under their magistrates; to whom they also, as was proper, paid their taxes.
However, that we may not give offense to our fellow believers, if any should entertain a different opinion in regard to this matter, although it has been sufficiently explained by us, we shall adduce the principal confessors who suffered in the besieged cities for the doctrine of the Albigensian religion, not as infallible witnesses, but as incidental matters; which the kind reader will please regard as having been done by us from no other motive than Christian prudence.